Background research
Below you can find some of the background research on which the project's understanding of collaborative teaching and learning is based. 


Results of the CARMA project

CARMA – RMA and other non-formal learning methods for student’s motivation is a two-and-a-half-year initiative that started in January 2016 and is funded by the ERASMUS+ Programme and coordinated by CESIE.

Early  School  Leaving – Statistics,  Policies  and  Good  Practices in Collaborative Learning

This report is a result of an in depth research study for the project CARMA, carried out across 7 European countries (Italy, Spain, France, Portugal, Turkey, Belgium and Austria), concerning statistics and policies regards early school leaving, existing national frameworks for the assessment of teacher competences, benchmarks used and applied standards and collection of good practices in collaborative learning in schools.

Collaborative teaching and learning in school education - Needs Analysis Report

This report provides the summary of the results from an extensive Needs Analysis Survey carried out as part of the research activity for the project CARMA, across Italy, Spain, France, Portugal, Turkey, Belgium and Austria. The report collects data from 1225 respondents involving teachers, students, parents and stakeholders on collaborative teaching and learning within school education. The report explores the real needs and quantifies these needs to gain a deeper knowledge on how to adapt the non-formal learning methods (to be introduced during the piloting phase) to each community and respective school system.


Additional references

  • Cooper, Carole and Boyd, Julie.(1994) Schools as collaborative learning communities. Launceston, Tasmania, Australia: Global Learning Communities.
  • Darling-Hammond, L., Hyler, M. E., Gardner, M. (2017). Effective Teacher Professional Development. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.
  • Elmore, R. , Ableman, C.H. , Even, J. , Kenyon, S. and Marshall, J. (2004), “When accountability knocks, will anyone answer?”, in Elmore, R.F. (Ed.), School Reform From the Inside Out , Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 133-199. [Google Scholar]
  • European Commission (2017). Teachers and school leaders  in schools as learning organisations: Guiding Principles for policy development  in school education.  ET 2020 Working Group Schools 2016-18
  • European Commission (2015). Science education for responsible citizenship. Brussels: Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, pp.21 - 22
  • Hargreaves, A. , Boyle, A. and Harris, A. (2014), Uplifting Leadership: How Organizations, Teams and Communities Raise Performance , Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA. [Google Scholar]
  • OECD (2017), What makes a school a learning organisation?, OECD  Publishing, Paris,
  • OECD (2016) What makes a school a Learning organisation? A guide for policy makers, school leaders and teachers. Paris: OECD -
  • OECD (2015), Schooling Redesigned: Towards Innovative Learning Systems, Educational Research and Innovation, OECD Publishing, Paris,
  • OECD (2014), TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning, TALIS, OECD Publishing, Paris,
  • OECD (2013), Innovative Learning Environments, Educational Research and Innovation, OECD, Publishing, Paris,
  • OECD (2013), Leadership for 21st Century Learning, Educational Research and Innovation, OECD, Publishing, Paris,
  • OECD (2005), Teachers Matter: Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers, OECD, Publishing, Paris,
  • Pentland, A. (2014), Social Physics: How Good Ideas Spread, Penguin Press, New York, NY. [Google Scholar]
  • Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago and Fullan, Michael. (2016). "Essential features of effective networks in education”, in the Journal of Professional Capital and Community Vol. 1 No. 1, 2016 pp. 5-22


Please contact us at if you are working in this area or have suggestions of relevant research we could make available here.

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